Electrostatic Theory is wrong!
A random collection of thoughts and experiments in electrostatics.
I WOULD BE VERY INTERESTED IF ANYBODY WANTS TO SHARE THEIR EXPERIMENTS OR EXPERIENCES WITH ELECTROSTATICS.
This is an attempt at offering a new understanding of electrical theory which is currently a mixture experiments done by candlelight over a hundred years ago, the results of which were enormously influenced by popular thought of their day, and what I believe is a lot of well meaning science fiction.
The idea that there are two types of electricity came from the understanding at the time of magnetism. Positive and negative charges proved a sound reasoning for charge dissipation.
Though we can accurately define the properties of magnetism the concept of positive and negative magnetic fields are purely an analogy in an attempt to understand magnetism’s physical properties. Placing a label on a particular measurable physical behaviour offers us no insight of what is causing the movement. As we are familiar with magnetic lines of force we must assume that any impetus is created by movement itself which in turn influences all matter to a greater or lesser degree depending on it’s transpearancy to the applied force.
A vacuum acts as a perfect insulator of both sound and heat because there is no medium for transference. Yet light and electricity (or charge), which is theoretically a transfer of electrons and photons are not affected. For light in a vacuum, we have to assume that there remains enough free photons for light to remain completely unaffected. Alternatively a better explanation is that light is a disturbance in the electromagnetic spectrum wavelengths which travel freely through seemingly empty space. In this way ‘particles’ would have no place in explaining light.
If a star was continuously emitting enough light “particles” in every direction to allow us to view it in detail trillions of kilometers away, the dissipation of “matter” would be impossibly large. Our nearest star is close to 397 trillion km away. Enough particles to allow our eye, a few milimeters in diameter to view this star for one second would be amazing, but the spherical dissipation of matter or “photons” over 4,986 trillion square km, every second of every year, over millions of year is impossible. Our night sky contains millions of stars visible to the naked eye and most of these stars are 1,000 times this distance. When we view light as simply a wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum then the concept light traveling over these distances is easier to understand. Though science tells us space is a vacuum. How can a wave form travel trillions of kilometers without a medium? It can’t! While the plasma cosmology offers an almost viable alternative it still explains everything in terms of particles.
For electricity in a vacuum, the theory of charge separation and atoms exchanging electrons would mean that a vacuum being void of these ‘particles’ would act as a perfect insulator. My own experiments show that while this initially appears correct, a vacuum can be filled with electrostatic pressure by placing a charged plate in the vacuum. There are many interesting things about this experiment which I will detail in time. Firstly I noted that a self organising magnetic field formed around the vacuum chamber and held the charge long after the charge was cut off. I was able to draw a spark from the vacuum chamber up to two days after the charge was introduced. Rather than the vacuum acting as an insulator, it acted as a perfect conductor. Any charge within the vacuum chamber was immediately and evenly distributed throughout the chamber. To my mind it also confirms that empty space is not empty at all. Vast charges or plasmas exist in space which form self-organising electromagnetic fields (vortex rings). Electrons or protons are supposed to behave like little magnets. How can an electrically dense cloud possibly form in the vacuum if like charges are repelled by these powerful electromagnetic forces? Shouldn’t the ‘particles be thrown apart or shouldn’t the cloud immediately dissipate into its oppositely charged environment. Anybody who has every played with magnets will be familiar with the very strong forces between them.
Another thought is the distances between atoms are so vast that the idea of an electron jumping from one atom to the next would be analogous to our moon being ripped away out of orbit by another solar system light years away, because it was imbalanced, then being put back in orbit around the earth when it was no longer needed. Imagine then the amount of electrons that would be needed to be exchanged to create the many trillions of volts that are exchanged in your day.
The following is not a complete theory but a study of observed phenomena and the possible mechanisms at play. It hopefully raises a number of questions that may form the foundation of further contribution by accomplished and knowledgeable professionals in this area. It offers a fundamentally atypical view that explains static electricity as simple and elegant, and provides a better understanding of magnetism, electricity and valuable clues on understanding gravitational forces.
Some of the ideas presented here present a subtle change of our established understanding of charge; two of the ideas present a dramatic change yet still fit with all known experimental observations.
Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb’s law. Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, the electrostatic force between e.g. an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 40 orders of magnitudestronger than the gravitational force acting between them. - Wiki
My concept of electrostatics:
Electrostatics commonly refers to the build up of a charge imbalance on the surface of an object. Electrostatic charge imbalance occurs when any two surfaces contact and separate, the effects of the apparent charge exchange are usually unnoticed as the charge almost immediately dissipates through the air and surrounding surfaces. When at least one of the surfaces is a poor conductor and has a high resistance to electrical flow, impeding the natural dissipation of the charge, the familiar effects of static electricity can be observed.
A charge imbalance can also be accumulated through charge transfer as in a Van Der Graaff generator.
Like an author describing an alien environment Charles Francois Du Fay in 1733 stated there are two types of electricity. While this successfully explained observed phenomena it was analogous to saying there are two types of water. The very fabric of the universe was to be theoretically divided for another 280 years.
While this article does not blatantly suggest that there is not negative and positive electricity, it will question the mechanisms at play in commonly observed electrostatic phenomena.
Current theory of Charge Separation.
Electrostatic charge is thought to be the observed charge imbalance brought about through charge separation. An example would be where two different objects in the Triboelectric series are separated resulting in one object becoming positively charged and the other negative. With the use of a coulomb meter the resulting negative and positive charges can be easily measured at the point of separation.
EXPERIMENT: Place a compass near a statically charged object and it will also show magnetic forces at play. Magnetic forces relate to the flow of charge.
EXPERIMENT: Place a coulomb meter on a charged object to observe the effects of charge separation. Examine the top, bottom and rear of the charged object and the opposite of the expected charge can also be observed.
If electrostatic charge is only the result of charge separation then a charged object cannot end up with both charges. Some other phenomena is being observed here.
To demonstrate this more dramatically a Van Der Graff generator was used to create large amounts of charge. One end of a wire was connected to the dome of the generator, the other to a terminal that discharged within a vacuum flask acting as a capacitor. Once again the magnetic flow can be measured using a compass and, utilising a coulomb meter as field meter – ensuring that a careful distance is maintained to avoid a destructive discharge – both a strong negative (at the base) and a strong positive (at the top) flows can be observed whereas is it assumed that there is only one type of electricity charging the capacitor.
If the created charge were the result of charge separation, or charge transfer, that is electrons moving from one object to another, then it would be impossible for charged object to have two types of charge.
Another anomaly is that if oppositely charged surfaces are brought together it should be expected with our present understanding that the charges should immediately cancel each other out. That they retain an attraction to each other even after being brought together demonstrates that this charge cancelation does not occur.
DEMONSTRATE THE PROBLEMS WITH THE PRESENT THEORY.
Charge dissipation is one of the most important concepts in understanding electrostatics. Charge can only exist in one of two states, balanced or imbalanced.
When dissipating, charge radiates outward in every direction behaving much like a burst balloon would dissipate air pressure. The difference is that certain substances (conductors) offer less resistance to the dissipating electrostatic pressure assisting or acting as a conduit for balancing the charge quicker. A charge carried along a conducting path acts in the same way, dissipating charge radially, always spreading to the greatest surface area, unless it is carried by the conductor to a distant point of dissipation. The simple laws of dispersion dictate the radial forces. This radial dissipation also illustrates how a charge will always be carried along the outermost surface of a conductor. Thus it can be stated that electrostatics tends to be a surface phenomena.
TheThat they don’t demonstrates the appearance of opposite charges may be simply a product of the magnetic fields and not the charge itself.
An imbalanced charge will always generate a self-organising magnetic field, which relates to flow.
Electrostatic phenomena include many examples as simple as the attraction of the plastic wrap to your hand after you remove it from a package, to the apparently spontaneous explosion of grain silos, to the damage of electronic components during manufacturing, to the operation of photocopiers.
The phenomena of charge separation can be experimentally explained as a magnetic phenomenon. The created charge is stored in a self-organising magnetic field.
Measuring the current with a coulomb meter will only show the flow of current in relation to the induced magnetic field. The idea that a charged object is either positive or negatively charged is wrong as the charged object will have both charges one at either end.
It is resistance to this
An electrical spark or discharge occurs when an electrical path or conductor is introduced at a point where the electrostatic build up or pressure is greater than the surrounding air pressure. It is found to be around 30kv per centimetre against 1kg of air pressure at sea level. This will vary with both altitude and humidity. .????
Charge a perspex rod and you will find the localised field is strongly attracted to a flat sheet of paper yet exerts no force on any object on the other side of the sheet. The paper will be attracted to the charged rods regardless of their polarity.
The static charge establishes a self organising magnetic field. Much like the way water spirals down a drain. The weaker magnetic force is responsible for the remaining attractive and repulsive forces which are normally attributed to the polarity of the static charge, demonstrating that these forces are separate to the more dramatic displays of static charge.
In another demonstration, within a vacuum jar, we have placed a metal plate connected externally to an electrostatic generator, next to this we have placed a graphite-coated polystyrene ball tied to a thread. When the electrostatic generator is started the graphite ball swings wildly attracted and repelled by the charged plate. (Collecting and dissipating charge). Though when the jar is evacuated the charge no longer has any effect on the graphite ball.
The concept of polarity has been deliberately left out as it introduces another perquisite for charge dissipation. This is not necessary in understanding electrostatic pressure. The attractive and repulsive forces of charge are explained later.
Dry air is a very poor conductor of electrostatic charge and as such is acted upon by the charge. Charge repels the air much like it would any other insulator.
Electrostatic pressure exists in an inversely proportional relationship to air pressure. This may occur because air, particularly dry air is an insulator. It is tempting to say that electrostatic pressure exists in an inverse relationship to matter.
Although we live in a world where very high electrical potentials are constantly being charged and discharged, under normal circumstances a person rarely encounters an imbalanced charge as it is immediately dissipated through the air or surrounding surfaces. When the air humidity is low the air acts as an insulator slowing the charge dissipation on other insulators.
Apply polystyrene balls to a vandergraaff generator and they will be drawn to the generator by the low air pressure. As the balls gain electrostatic pressure that they are incapable of dissipating they will jump and rotate until the entire ball is coated. When the ball is entirely coated the electrostatic pressure will overcome the low air pressure and fling the balls away from the generator.
The fact that any material light enough will be attracted to the generator irrespective of it’s electrical properties demonstrates that it is not electricity doing the work.
Electrostatic pressure is and atmospheric pressure are the inverse of each other. High atmospheric pressure equals low electrostatic pressure. High electrostatic pressure equals low air pressure. Current Electrostatic theory is wrong in that it explains accumulated electric charge as the result of the transfer of electrons from one object onto another.
Correct electrostatic theory is that a buildup of electrostatic pressure is caused by low air pressure plus the inability of an object to dissipate the charge. Quickly pull two plastic sheets apart in cool dry air and they will repel each other, both having gained electrostatic pressure. The same applies to some fabrics. The concept of charge transference is proven wrong as both objects become simultaneously charged and repel each other. The charge is the result of the momentary lower air pressure caused by the items being pulled apart and the materials inability to immediately dissipate the corresponding rise in charge. The air is violently repelled in much the same way as a charged polystyrene ball is flung from a van de graaph generator. As both the air and charge have little mass the effect tends to be dramatic.
Lightening occurs where there is an imbalanced charge caused by rapid drop in air pressure and a corresponding rise electrostatic pressure. The charged cold dry air normally resides much higher in the atmosphere. The cool dry air is incapable if dissipating the imbalanced charge. In the case of a thunderstorm the warm air which contains a lot of moisture
The turbulent weather brings the charge carrying air much closer to the ground. The enormous charge imbalance quickly dissipates through the surrounding moist air. Often to ground.
Zero point energy exists as a balanced charge, held in place and in existence because of the vacuum.
Experiment: test the effect of vacuum on electrostatic field. Does it still attract without air pressure? No
Explains why insulators gather an electrostatic charge but at the same time Act as an insulator.
Experiment: place a jar with compressed air face to a vandergraph generator and see of the attraction forces are affected. Use bees wax to seal the rim to th VG.
Two glass rods rubbed with silk, become charged with static electricity, and repel each other and two ebonite rods rubbed with fur, become charged with static electricity, and repel each other. However the charged glass rods attract the charged ebonite rods . It has been accepted by convention that the glass rods have become positively charged and the ebonite rods have become negatively charged. The processes result in the silk acquiring a negative charge and the fur acquiring a positive charges.
A positive charge means that the object has lost electrons and is no longer electrically neutral. Each electron lost results in an increase of charge of +1.6 x 10-19 coulombs. since electric charge is conserved, the system (glass rod and silk together) maintains a net charge of 0.
A negative charge means that the object has gained electrons. Each electron gained results in a charge change of -1.6 x 10-19 coulombs.
The following list shows part of the tribo-electric sequence. When any two substances shown in this list are rubbed together, the top one will become positively charged while the lower one will become negatively charged. The further apart the two substances are in the list, the greater the electrification.
Human skin, Aluminum
Charged adhesive tape
A simple and illuminating example of the effects of static electricity can be observed using adhesive tape http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure_Sensitive_Tape, charged by peeling. For example, Scotch tape http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotch_tape is on the negative side of the triboelectric series, hence tends to gain electrons and acquire negative charge. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_electricity#cite_note-Tape-24
If a length of tape adhered to a smooth surface is rapidly peeled off, the tape acquires an excess negative charge (generally polypropylene http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypropylene with an acrylic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylic_resin adhesive.) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_electricity#cite_note-tape_material-25%5Bdead link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot%5D Do this with two lengths of tape and they repel each other, which demonstrates that like charges repel. Each individual length of tape is at least slightly attracted to almost any object, as the presence of the excess negative charge induces a charge separation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_electricity#Charge_induced_charge_separation in nearby objects. Negative charges are pushed farther away, while positive charges are attracted, and the strength of the attractive and repulsive forces http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Force falls off quite rapidly with distance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inverse-square_law. This effect is most pronounced in materials such as metals http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal, that conduct electricity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_conductor, as the negative charges are free to move within the material.
Finally, try attaching two lengths of tape together, exhaling on them along the entire length to neutralize the charge, then rapidly pulling them apart. There will be some imbalance in the distribution of negative charge between the two pieces such that one is more positive and the other more negative; you should now find that the two lengths of tape attract each other, demonstrating the fact that opposite charges attract. Attaching the adhesive side of one length of tape to the non-adhesive side of the other reduces the chance of tearing and increases the charge imbalance, and hence the strength of the attractive force
The idea of an echange of electrons is as difficult to accept as the idea of the earth losing it’s moon to some distant star some light yeas away. Then with our solar system feeling unbalanced, attracting it back again.
Electrostatic pressure. Electrostatic pressure is normally referred to as voltage or charge.
Imbalanced charge. The collection of an unsustainable charge.
Balanced charge. A sustained or fully dispersed charge.
Charge dissipation. An imbalanced charge must dissipate via the path of least resistance to a point where balance is restored.
Experiment: see if there is a self-organising magnetic field around a Van Dr Graff generator. Yes
Experiment: see if the Casimir effect can be amplified by increasing the electrostatic charge. Result. Unable to find iron without a weak magnetic field.
Experiment: Measure the drop in charge after oppositely charged rods come in contact. Does the drop in charge match the dissipation into the coulomb meter capacitor?
Experiment: Test to see if a charged rod is affected by a magnet. If so, test strength of response against normal charged rods.